Friday, April 27, 2018

[Hexapoda • 2018] Oligotomidae (Insecta: Embioptera) of Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Philippines, with Description of A New Species


Aposthonia borneensis (Hagen, 1885)

in Lucañas & Lit, 2018.

Abstract

The diversity of webspinners (Insecta: Embioptera) in Mt. Makiling, Los Baños was studied. Four species were recorded: Aposthonia borneensis (Hagen), A. merdelynae Lucañas & Lit n. sp., Oligotoma humbertiana (Saussure) and O. saundersii (Westwood). Each was illustrated and described. The new species differs from its congeners by relatively smaller size, subcylindrical left basal cercus with an inner lobe, and enlarged membranous area of the 10RP. A dichotomous key was devised to aid in identification of each species.

Keywords: Embioptera, Aposthonia, diversity, Oligotoma, taxonomy, webspinners



 Aposthonia borneensis (Hagen, 1885)


Cristian C. Lucañas and Ireneo L. Lit, Jr. 2018. Oligotomidae (Insecta: Embioptera) of Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Philippines, with Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 4415(1); 173–182. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4415.1.9

Thursday, April 26, 2018

[Paleontology • 2018] Shirerpeton isajii • The First Record of Albanerpetontid Amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae) from East Asia


Shirerpeton isajii
Matsumoto & Evans, 2018

llustration: Takumi Yamamoto

Abstract  
Albanerpetontids are an enigmatic fossil amphibian group known from deposits of Middle Jurassic to Pliocene age. The oldest and youngest records are from Europe, but the group appeared in North America in the late Early Cretaceous and radiated there during the Late Cretaceous. Until now, the Asian record has been limited to fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. This led to speculation that albanerpetontids migrated into eastern Asia from North America in the Albian to Cenomanian interval via the Beringian land bridge. However, here we describe albanerpetontid specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation of Japan, a record that predates their first known occurrence in North America. One specimen, an association of skull and postcranial bones from a single small individual, permits the diagnosis of a new taxon. High Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography has revealed previously unrecorded features of albanerpetontid skull morphology in three dimensions, including the presence of a supraoccipital and epipterygoids, neither of which occurs in any known lissamphibian. The placement of this new taxon within the current phylogenetic framework for Albanerpetontidae is complicated by a limited overlap of comparable elements, most notably the non-preservation of the premaxillae in the Japanese taxon. Nonetheless, phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon closer to Albanerpeton than to Anoualerpeton, Celtedens, or Wesserpeton, although Bootstrap support values are weak. The results also question the monophyly of Albanerpeton as currently defined.


Fig 2. Shirerpeton isajii gen. et sp. nov., SBEI 2459, holotype block.
A, digital photograph showing surface view of the specimen after manual preparation; B, rendered view of the surface from μCT data showing identifications of exposed elements.

Abbreviations: Br, braincase elements; Fr, frontal; L.La, left lacrimal; L.Mx, left maxilla; L.N, left nasal; L.Pa, left parietal; LPf, left prefrontal; L.Sm, left septomaxilla; L.Sq, left squamosal; R.La, right lacrimal; R.Pa, right parietal; R.Pf, right prefrontal; R.Sq, right squamosal;?, unidentified element. Scale bars = 5 mm.

Fig 3. Shirerpeton isajii gen. et sp. nov., skull reconstruction.
A-D, Model construction. 3-D models constructed using printouts of the individually segmented elements from the μCT data (mirrored as needed: nasal, parietal, possible supratemporal) and fitted into modelling clay. A, dorsal; B, right lateral; C, left lateral; D, left anterolateral showing the relations of the nasal, lacrimal, and maxilla in the narial margin. The tip of the rostrum is roughly reconstructed in modelling clay. E, outline reconstruction of the skull in dorsal view, based on the 3-D model in A-D. Note that the suspensorial elements are omitted as their positions are uncertain.
Abbreviations: Fr, frontal; J, jugal; La, lacrimal; Mx, maxilla; N, nasal; Pa, parietal; Pf, prefrontal; S.O, supraoccipital;? St, possible supratemporal.

 Systematic palaeontology
Lissamphibia  
Albanerpetontidae  

Shirerpeton gen. nov.

Etymology: From the Japanese Shiro, white, partly for Shiramine, the type locality, but also because the family name, Albanerpetontidae, derives from the original French locality of La Grive-Saint-Alban, with Alba/Alban (Latin) meaning white.

Shirerpeton isajii sp. nov.

Holotype: Shiramine Board of Education Ishikawa Prefecture, SBEI 2459, a small block bearing most of a disarticulated but associated skull with some postcranial elements (Fig 2A). The specimen is housed in the Shiramine Institute of Paleontology, Hakusan Board of Education, Hakusan City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.

Etymology: Species name honours Dr Shinji Isaji, Chiba Prefecture Museum, Japan, for his longstanding work on the fossils, geology, and palaeoenvironment of the Kuwajima Formation.

....

    

Fig 41. Skull roofing bones in albanerpetontids (not to scale).
A, Shirerpeton isajii; B, Celtedens ibericus; C, Albanerpeton inexpectatum; D, Albanerpeton pannonicum.

Conclusions: 
The recovery of the new Japanese specimens sheds new light on albanerpetontid morphology and biogeography, but raises as many questions as it resolves. There is clearly much more to discover about these enigmatic little tetrapods, in terms of their morphology, relationships, and evolutionary history. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that the group had a more extensive temporal and geographical distribution in Asia than previously understood. Awareness of this among researchers may lead to further discoveries.


Ryoko Matsumoto and Susan E. Evans. 2018.  The First Record of Albanerpetontid Amphibians (Amphibia: Albanerpetontidae) from East Asia. PLoS ONE. 13(1); e0189767. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189767


化石:1.3億年前、新種の両生類 石川で3個体分 - 毎日新聞  mainichi.jp/articles/20180407/ddn/012/040/020000c
Amphibian fossil in Ishikawa recognized as new species: The Asahi Shimbun  asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201804210005.html

[Ichthyology • 2018] Revision of the Australian Wet Tropics Endemic Rainbowfish Genus Cairnsichthys (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), with Description of A New Species, Cairnsichthys bitaeniatus


Cairnsichthys bitaeniatus 
Hammer, Allen, Martin, Adams, Ebner, Raadik & Unmack, 2018


Abstract

The freshwater melanotaeniid genus Cairnsichthys is endemic to a relatively small area of specialised habitat within the Wet Tropics bioregion of north-eastern Queensland, Australia. It was previously considered as monotypic, including only a single species, C. rhombosomoides (Nichols & Raven, 1928). The recent discovery of an apparently-isolated population in the Daintree rainforest, approximately 120 km north of the known range extent, prompted a detailed investigation of its taxonomic status using a combined lines of evidence approach. We provide compelling evidence from multiple nuclear genetic markers (52 allozyme loci), mitochondrial DNA sequence data (1141 bp cytochrome b) and morphology (examination of a suite of 38 morphometric and meristic characters) that supports north-south splitting of C. rhombosomoides. Accordingly, we describe the northern population as a distinct speciesCairnsichthys bitaeniatus sp. nov., on the basis of 25 specimens, 34.7–65.6 mm SL. The new species differs morphologically primarily by having a more slender and narrow shape, featuring a flatter, straighter predorsal profile and shorter second dorsal fin base; possession of slightly smaller scales, reflected in higher counts of lateral scales and predorsal scales; typically more vertebrae; and colour differences including a more robust, short black stripe across the upper operculum, a pronounced yellow patch on the anteroventral body and usually a more conspicuous second dark stripe on the lower body, with adult males generally having yellowish compared to reddish fins. We also provide a generic diagnosis for Cairnsichthys and a redescription of C. rhombosomoides. Information on the known distribution, habitats and conservation status of species in the genus is summarised, the new species being of particular concern as a narrow range endemic with specific environmental requirements.

Keywords: Pisces, fishes, freshwater biodiversity, conservation, taxonomy, molecular systematics, northern Australia




Michael P. Hammer, Gerald R. Allen, KeithC. Martin, Mark Adams, Brendan C. Ebner, Tarmo A. Raadik and Peter J. Unmack. 2018. Revision of the Australian Wet Tropics Endemic Rainbowfish Genus Cairnsichthys (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), with Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 4413(2); 271–294. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.2.3

[Ichthyology • 2018] A Taxonomic Review of Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788) (Lampridiformes; Lampridae) with Descriptions of Three New Species; Lampris australensis, L. incognitus & L. megalopsis


Lampris immaculatus (Gilchrist 1905),  Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
 Lampris australensis n. sp.Lampris lauta (Lowe 1838)   
 Lampris megalopsis n. sp.,  & Lampris incognitus n. sp. 


 Underkoffler, Luers, Hyde & Craig, 2018

Abstract

The genus Lampris (Lampridae) currently comprises two species, Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788) and Limmaculatus (Gilchrist 1905) commonly known as Opah and Southern Opah, respectively. Hyde et al. (2014) presented DNA sequence data which revealed the presence of five distinct, monophyletic lineages within L. guttatus. In this paper, we present morphological and meristic data supporting the presence of five species previously subsumed within L. guttatus (Brünnich 1788). We restrict Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788), resurrect L. lauta (Lowe 1838), and describe three new species of Lampris. A key to the species of Lampris is provided.

Keywords: Pisces, Opah, moonfish, taxonomy



FIGURE 4. Species of the genus Lampris.
A) Lampris immaculatus*, B) Lampris guttatus, uncatalogued, 118 cm TL †,
C) AM I.24492-001, holotype, Lampris australensis n. sp. 67.3 cm SL, D) MMF 42253, Lampris lauta, 90.5 cm SL,
E) USNM 402733, holotype, Lampris megalopsis n. sp., 85.3 cm SL, F) USNM 402731, holotype, Lampris incognitus n. sp., 82.8 cm SL.

 (*Photograph by Dianne J. Bray, Lampris immaculatus in Fishes of Australia, accessed 17 Feb 2018, fishesofaustralia.net.au) († Photograph courtesy of Patrice Francour).

 Lampris immaculatus (Gilchrist 1905) 
Common name: Southern Opah  


Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
Common Name: North Atlantic Opah


Lampris lauta Lowe 1860
Common name: East Atlantic Opah

Etymology. The specific epithet lauta was taken from the Latin lautus meaning “elegant”.


Lampris australensis, n. sp. 
Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788)
Lampris guttatus Lineage 4. Hyde et al. 2014.
Common name: Southern Spotted Opah  

Etymology. The specific epithet is taken from the Latin australis meaning “southern” in reference to the known range of the species in the southern hemisphere.


Lampris incognitus n. sp. 
Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1778)
Lampris guttatus Lineage 5. Hyde et al. 2014.
Common name: Smalleye Pacific Opah

Etymology. From the Latin incognitus, meaning, “unknown, strange.”


Lampris megalopsis, n. sp. 
Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1778)
Lampris guttatus Lineage 3. Hyde et al. 2014.
Common Name: Bigeye Pacific Opah

Etymology. The specific epithet is taken from the Greek mega, meaning, “big or large”, and ops meaning “eye” in reference to its comparatively large eye.

  
Karen E. Underkoffler, Meagan A. Luers, John R Hyde and Matthew T. Craig. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of Lampris guttatus (Brünnich 1788) (Lampridiformes; Lampridae) with Descriptions of Three New Species. Zootaxa. 4413(3); 551-565. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4413.3.9

[Botany • 2018] Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii • A New Species of Succulent Plants (Crassulaceae) from northwestern Querétaro, Mexico


Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii Add  E. Pérez-Calix & R.Torres

in Pérez-Calix & Torres-Colín, 2018. 

Abstract

Pachyphytum (Crassulaceae) is a genus of perennial plants with ca. 20 species endemic to central Mexico. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is described here as a new species. It is compared to P. garciae, which is morphologically similar. The new species is endemic to the northwestern region of the state of Querétaro where it was found on limestone walls. It is assigned the category of endangered (EN).

Keywords: Arroyo Seco, sect. Diostostemon, sect. Ixiocaulon, Eudicots


FIGURE 2. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii:
A) habit; B) petal color; C) calyx lobes; D) inflorescence peduncle and floral bracts. 

FIGURE 2. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii: A) habit; B) petal color; C) calyx lobes; D) inflorescence peduncle and floral bracts. P. garciae: E) habit; F) petal color; G) calyx lobes; H) inflorescence peduncle and flowers bracts.

Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii E. Pérez-Calix & R.Torres, sp. nov.,

 Type:— MEXICO. Querétaro: municipio Arroyo Seco, cerca de 2.9 km al sur de Santa María de Cocos, 800 m elevation, 21°18’24.64” N, 99°38’26.54” O, 3 November 2015, E. Pérez 6616 (holotype IEB!, isotypes MEXU!, QMEX!).

Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is morphologically similar to P. garciae, which differs in that its leaves are up to 1.3 cm longer and 0.5 cm wider; the bracts of the peduncle are 6‒7.5 mm longer and 2‒3.5 wider; calyx lobes are also larger and corolla lobes are white with an abaxial red spot in the middle.

....

Distribution and habitat:— Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii is endemic to the northwest region of Queretaro, near the border with Guanajuato where one population that lives on vertical walls of limestone sedimentary rock has been recorded in the canyon of the Atarjea river. The climate of the region is subhumid, semi-warm (sensu García 1973). The vegetation corresponds to the deciduous tropical forest (sensu Zamudio et al. 1992). Some of its elements are Celtis iguanaea and various representatives of Leguminosae. The walls where the plant grows are also habitat by populations of Agave sp., Hechtia sp., Echeveria sp. and Sedum corynephyllum.


Etymology:— The specific epithet is dedicated to the memory of Rogelio Mariano Cárdenas-Soriano (Cuautla, Morelos, 1961 - Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, 2010). Rogelio worked as a scientific illustrator in the Bajío Regional Center of the Institute of Ecology, A.C., from 1995 until his death, and elaborated a series of illustrations, published in the fascicles of Flora del Bajío and of adjacent regions; he also drew new taxa for science, which were published in various specialized journals in botany.


Emmanuel Pérez Calix and Rafael Torres Colín. 2018. Pachyphytum rogeliocardenasii (Crassulaceae), A New Species from northwestern Querétaro, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 348(1); 56–62. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.348.1.7

[Ichthyology • 2018] Hisonotus devidei • A New Species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the São Francisco Basin, Brazil


 Hisonotus devidei 
Roxo, Silva & Melo, 2018

Abstract
A recent expedition to headwaters of the Rio Pandeiros, a left‐bank tributary of the Rio São Francisco revealed the presence of a fourth species of Hisonotus from that basin. Hisonotus devidei sp. nov. differs from congeners by the presence of conspicuous dark blotches of distinct shapes irregularly arranged along lateral and dorsal surfaces of the body and scattered throughout all fins, by possessing small plates in lateral portions of the abdomen and adjacent areas between pelvic fins without development of dermal plates and by morphometric ratios. The putative phylogenetic placement of the new species is discussed based on morphological comparisons with species of related Hypoptopomatinae genera and the Hisonotus species diversity within the Rio São Francisco Basin is compared with that of adjacent basins.

Keywords: cascudinhos, freshwater, Hypoptopomatinae, Neotropics, taxonomy


Figure 1 Hisonotus devidei sp. nov., MZUSP 123294, holotype, female, 28·9 mm standard length, Córrego Catolé, Rio Pandeiros, Rio São Francisco basin.

Hisonotus devidei sp. nov

Etymology: The epithet devidei honours Renato Devidé, a dear friend and collector of the species, for his immeasurable contribution during more than 30 years as an academic technician in the LBP fish collection, assisting and coordinating expeditions that resulted in numerous scientific publications, theses and dissertations in the fields of ecology, cytogenetics, population genetics, taxonomy, systematics and evolution of Neotropical fishes.

F. F. Roxo, G. S. C. Silva and B. F. Melo. 2018. Hisonotus devidei, A New Species from the São Francisco basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Journal of Fish Biology. DOI:  10.1111/jfb.13599

[Entomology • 2018] A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Palumbina Rondani, 1876 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Thiotrichinae) from China, with Descriptions of Twelve New Species


Palumbina macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918)

in Lee, Li, Han & Park, 2018

Abstract
Palumbina is a small genus of Gelechiidae that includes species distributed only in the Old World. It was recently assigned to the subfamily Thiotrichinae, but the morphological and molecular studies at the species level have not been extensively conducted. In this study, we focused on the taxonomy of the Chinese Palumbina using morphology and DNA barcoding analysis to confirm the species identification and the relationship among closely related species. In China, three species of this genus were recorded previously. A total of 19 were finally recognized in the present study, including 12 new species: P. magnisigna sp. nov., P. grandiunca sp. nov., P. melanotricha sp. nov., P. atricha sp. nov., P. sigmoides sp. nov., P. acuticula sp. nov., P. rugosa sp. nov., P. sineloba sp. nov., P. spinevalva sp. nov., P. acerosa sp. nov., P. triangularis sp. nov. and P. acinacea sp. nov., and five species that are new records for China: P. chelophora (Meyrick, 1918), P. diplobathra (Meyrick, 1918), P. macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918), P. nesoclera (Meyrick, 1929) and P. operaria (Meyrick, 1918). Three new combinations are proposed: P. operaria (Meyrick, 1918) comb. nov., P. albilustra (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005) comb. nov. and P. shivai (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005) comb. nov., and one new synonymy is established: Thyrsostoma albilustra (Walia et Wadhawan, 2005), syn. nov. of P. oxyprora (Meyrick, 1922). Based on the neighbor-joining analysis of COI gene sequences of 67 exemplar specimens, four clades were well supported with high bootstrap values resulting in four species-groups: the guerinii-group, the grandiunca-group, the macrodelta-group and the nesoclera-group. However, seven species were grouped together in an additional clade with weak support and P. diplobathra and P. chelophora were not clustered with any other species due to the high genetic divergences. Palumbina chelophora showed typical characteristics of the genus morphologically, but it was not embedded within Palumbina as monophyletic from the tree, assuming that the sole use of mitochondrial fragments could not resolve the deeper relationship. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify those issues. In this study, the generic diagnosis was reviewed based on previous studies and morphological examination.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Taxonomy, Macrenches, Polyhymno, Thiotricha, DNA barcode, COI analysis


Palumbina macrodelta (Meyrick, 1918) 


Ga-Eun Lee, Houhun Li, Taeman Han and Haechul Park. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Palumbina Rondani, 1876 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Thiotrichinae) from China, with Descriptions of Twelve New Species. Zootaxa. 4414(1); 1-73. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4414.1.1

[Botany • 2017] Polystichum hastipinnum • A New Cave Fern (subg. Haplopolystichum; Dryopteridaceae) from Guangdong, China


Polystichum hastipinnum  G.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang

in Tang, Huang, Li, He & Zhang, 2017

Abstract

A new species of Polystichum (subg. Haplopolystichum; Dryopteridaceae), Polystichum hastipinnum, is described from a limestone cave in northern Guangdong, China. Polystichum hastipinnum is most similar to P. kwangtungense in having oblong pinnae, but the former has stipe and rachis scales denser, basalmost pair of pinnae hastate and with bases somewhat cordate, while the latter has stipe and rachis scales much sparser, basalmost pair of pinnae oblong and with bases cuneate.

Keywords: Cave ferns, Polystichum hastipinnum, P. kwangtungense, Pteridophytes, China

FIGURE 2. Polystichum hastipinnum G.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang. .— Habit from the field. 

Polystichum hastipinnum G.D. Tang & Li Bing Zhang, sp. nov.

...

Etymology:— From the Latin, hasti-, hastate, and -pinnum, pinnae, referring to the hastate basalmost pinnae.


Guang-Da Tang, Lin Huang, Jia-Yu Li, Zeng-Li He and Li-Bing Zhang. 2017. Polystichum hastipinnum (subg. Haplopolystichum; Dryopteridaceae), A New Cave Fern from Guangdong, China. Phytotaxa. 309(1); 66-72. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.309.1.6
 ResearchGate.net/publication/317630570_Polystichum_hastipinnum_a_new_cave_fern_from_Guangdong_China


[Mammalogy • 2018] Integrative Taxonomy Resolves Three New Cryptic Species of Small southern African Horseshoe Bats (Rhinolophus)


Rhinolophus gorongosae 
Taylor, Macdonald, Goodman, Kearney, Cotterill, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Guyton, Naskrecki & Richards, 2018 

photo: Piotr Naskrecki  

Abstract
Examination of historical and recent collections of small Rhinolophus bats revealed cryptic taxonomic diversity within southern African populations previously referred to as R. swinnyi Gough, 1908 and R. landeri Martin, 1832. Specimens from Mozambique morphologically referable to R. swinnyi were phylogenetically unrelated to topotypic R. swinnyi from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa based on cytochrome b sequences and showed distinctive echolocation, baculum and noseleaf characters. Due to their genetic similarity to a previously reported molecular operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from north-eastern South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia, we recognize the available synonym (R. rhodesiae Roberts, 1946) to denote this distinct evolutionary species. This new taxon is genetically identical to R. simulator K. Andersen, 1904 based on mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences but can easily be distinguished on morphological and acoustic grounds. We attribute this genetic similarity to historical introgression, a frequently documented phenomenon in bats. An additional genetically distinct and diminutive taxon in the swinnyi s.l. group (named herein, Rhinolophus gorongosae sp. nov.) is described from Gorongosa National Park, central Mozambique. Specimens from Mozambique referable based on morphology to R. landeri were distinct from topotypic landeri from West Africa based on mtDNA sequences, and acoustic, noseleaf and baculum characters. This Mozambique population is assigned to the available synonym R. lobatus Peters, 1952.






Peter J. Taylor, Angus Macdonald, Steven M. Goodman, Teresa Kearney, Fenton P. D. Cotterill, Sam Stoffberg, Ara Monadjem, M. Corrie Schoeman, Jennifer Guyton, Piotr Naskrecki and Leigh R. Richards. 2018. Integrative Taxonomy Resolves Three New Cryptic Species of Small southern African Horseshoe Bats (Rhinolophus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly024
Descoberta de novas espécies de morcegos no Parque Nacional da Gorongosa e no Norte de Moçambique
A new study just published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society described a new bat species in southern Africa, named Rhinolophus gorongosae; it seems to occur only in Gorongosa National Park in Mozambique and possibly also on nearby Mount Mecula. Using genetic and morphological techniques, R. gorongosae was found to be distinct from neighboring horseshoe bat populations. With a mass of only 5 g this “dwarf” becomes Africa’s smallest horseshoe bat.

 facebook.com/gorongosa/posts/10156533087723729

   

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

[Botany • 2018] A Revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): The Species of Tropical Africa


 Xylopia aethiopica from Gabon Xylopia longipetala from Mali, representing a record for the country not otherwise documented Xylopia piratae from Ivory Coast Xylopia odoratissima from Zambia Xylopia arenaria from Tanzania

in Johnson & Murray, 2018.

Abstract
A revision of the 45 species of the pantropical genus Xylopia in Tropical Africa includes descriptions of six new species and a new section of the genus. The fruits and seeds of Xylopia show specializations that promote vertebrate dispersal, primarily by hornbills and monkeys. Over half of the African species have an Area of Occupancy (AOO) less than 80 km2, suggesting that they are in need of protection. African species are classified into five sections. Section Neoxylopia , with four species, is centered in the Guineo-Congolian Region and includes Xylopia globosa sp. nov. Section Ancistropetala, with three species, occurs in the same region. Both of these sections are endemic to Africa. Section Xylopia, which extends to Madagascar and the American tropics, has only a single species in Africa, X. aethiopica. The three species of section Verdcourtia sect. nov. are restricted to the East African coast and Madagascar. The largest number of African species, (34) belong to section Stenoxylopia, in which the seeds lack the arils found in the other sections and instead have a fleshy sarcotesta. Section Stenoxylopia is divided into two informal groups, one centered in eastern and southern Africa (X. odoratissima group) and the other centered in the wetter forests of western and central Africa (X. acutiflora group). Five new species are described in section StenoxylopiaXylopia nilotica sp. nov. from Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda, Xylopia calva sp. nov. from Nigeria and Cameroon, which is allied to X. phloiodora, and Xylopia monticola sp. nov. from Nigeria and Cameroon, X. piratae sp. nov. from Ivory Coast and Ghana, and X. unguiculata sp. nov. from Gabon. The latter three species are segregates of the former Xylopia acutiflora s. l. One new combination is made at the species level, X. shirensis comb. nov. Keys, descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, and an index to numbered collections document diversity and assist with species identification. The name Unona oliveriana Baill. was found to pre-date the name Unona lepidota Oliv., requiring the combination Meiocarpidium oliverianum comb. nov.

Keywords: Xylopia, pantropical Annonaceae, Tropical Africa, long distance dispersal, bird/monkey syndrome, X. aethiopica, conservation, new species

Figure 3. Flowers of representative Xylopia species.
A Flower from type collection of Xylopia globosa from Gabon B Xylopia tenuipetala from Mozambique C Xylopia quintasii from Gabon D Xylopia aethiopica from Gabon E Xylopia longipetala from Mali, representing a record for the country not otherwise documented F Xylopia piratae from Ivory Coast G Xylopia odoratissima from Zambia H Xylopia arenaria from Tanzania I Xylopia collina from Tanzania.
A, D by Thomas L. P. Couvreur B by Frances Chase C by Ehoarn Bidault E by Philip Birnbaum F by Céline Pirat G by Warren McClelland H and I by D. M. Johnson.

Xylopia globosa D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

Xylopia nilotica D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

 Xylopia calva D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

 Xylopia monticola D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

Xylopia piratae D. M. Johnson & N. A. Murray, sp. nov.

Figure 4. Fruits and seeds of representative Xylopia species.
A Xylopia staudtii from Democratic Republic of the Congo B Xylopia aethiopica from Republic of the Congo C Xylopia quintasii from Cameroon D Xylopia tenuipetala from Mozambique E Xylopia collina from Mozambique F Xylopia gracilipes from Mozambique G Xylopia hypolampra from Gabon H Xylopia tanganyikensis from Tanzania.

A by Quentin Luke B by David Harris C, G by Thomas L. P. Couvreur D by Jonathan Timberlake E, F by Mervyn Lötter H by Noriko Itoh. C reproduced with permission of Thomas L. P. Couvreur and of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists D reproduced with the permission of Jonathan Timberlake and of the Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.


 David M. Johnson and Nancy A. Murray. 2018. A Revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): The Species of Tropical Africa.  PhytoKeys. 97: 1-252.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.97.20975


[Paleontology • 2018] Peritresius martini • A New Species of Peritresius Leidy, 1856 (Testudines: Pan-Cheloniidae) from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Alabama, USA, and the Occurrence of the Genus within the Mississippi Embayment of North America


Peritresius martini  Gentry, Parham, Ehret & Ebersole, 2018


Abstract
Late Cretaceous members of Peritresius belong to a diverse clade of marine adapted turtles currently thought to be some of the earliest representatives of the lineage leading to modern hard-shelled sea turtles (Pan-Cheloniidae). Prior studies have suggested that Peritresius was monospecific, with a distribution restricted to Maastrichtian deposits in North America. However, new Peritresius specimens identified from Alabama and Mississippi, USA, show that the genus contains two taxa, Peritresius ornatus, and a new species Peritresius martini sp. nov. These two taxa are characterized by the presence of a generally cordiform carapace with moderately serrated peripherals, well-developed ventral flanges beginning at the third peripheral, squarish umbilical and lateral plastral fontanelles, and a narrow bridge formed by the contact between the hyoplastron and hypoplastron. Peritresius martini sp. nov. can be distinguished by its lack of dermal ornamentation and the presence of a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral. These new specimens represent the first occurrences of Peritresius from the Late Cretaceous Mississippi Embayment and extend the temporal range of this genus back to the early Campanian. When tested within a global phylogenetic context, Peritresius is placed on the stem of Cheloniidae (Pan-Cheloniidae) along with Ctenochelys and Allopleuron hofmanni. The heavily vascularized and uniquely sculptured dermal elements of P. ornatus are interpreted here as potentially relating to thermoregulation and therefore may have been one of the key factors contributing to the survival of Peritresius into the Maastrichtian, a period of cooling when other lineages of Campanian marine turtles (e.g., Protostegids, Toxochelys, and Ctenochelys) went extinct.


Systematic Paleontology
Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 
Testudines Batsch, 1788

Cryptodira Cope, 1868 
Chelonioidea Baur, 1893

Pan-Cheloniidae Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier, 2004

Genus Peritresius Leidy, 1856 

Type species: Peritresius ornatus Baird, 1964, figs 1–8, Navesink Formation (upper Maastrichtian), Burlington County, New Jersey, USA.

Amended diagnosis: Cretaceous pan-cheloniid differentiated from Allopleuron hofmanni in having a more broadly rounded carapace, a decreased distance between the axillary and inguinal notches of the plastron, a lack of elongate, finger-like lateral projections of the hypoplastron, and the relatively constant width of peripheral elements 3–11. Differentiated from pan-cheloniids such as Ctenochelys by a greatly expanded contact between the left and right epiplastra, significantly reduced contact between the hyo- and hypoplastron due to the presence of large central and lateral plastral fontanelles, and a highly domed carapace as evidenced by the broad angle (90°-120°) formed by the dorsal and ventral facets of peripherals 3–8. Specimens can be diagnosed as Peritresius by the following combination of features: generally cordiform carapace having peripheral elements with moderate lateral serrations; a single mid-sagittal keel on the dorsal surface of the carapace (ch.116/3) consisting of 7 keeled neurals (ch.126/1) with epineural ossifications situated at the junctures of neurals 3–4, 5–6, and 7-suprapygal 1; reduction in peripheral height moving posteriorly from peripheral 4; ratio between the axillary-inguinal distance of the plastron and the length of hyo-hypoplastral contact >2.5:1 (plastral index is this value * 100); and thyroid fenestra subdivided by pronounced contact between the pubes and ischia (ch.224/1).

Fig 3. Peritresius martini sp. nov., carapace, ALMNH 6191 (holotype) from the upper Campanian of Alabama, USA. (1) carapace in dorsal view and plastron in ventral view; (2) left peripherals 3–6, 9, & 11 in posterior view; (3) 10X magnified view of the dorsal surface of right peripheral 10; (4) hypothetical reconstruction of the complete shell with the preserved elements shown in gray. Abbreviations: p, peripheral; pyg, pygal; spg, suprapygal.





  


Peritresius martini sp. nov.

Etymology: martini: for the discoverer and initial preparator of the holotype specimen, Mr. George Martin of Auburn, Alabama.

Differential diagnosis: As for genus but can be distinguished from Peritresius ornatus by a lack of sculpturing on the dermal surfaces of the carapacial elements, a less pronounced lateral keel of the anterior peripherals, and a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral (ch.133/2).

Holotype: ALMNH 6191 (Figs 3–5), includes peripherals 3–6 and 8–11 of the right side, peripherals 8–11 of the left side, pygal, partial 1st suprapygal, right epiplastron, right hyoplastron, both hypoplastra, both xiphiplastra, and an articulated pelvic girdle.

Type locality: Site ALn-8, Dry Cedar Creek, Lowndes County, Alabama, USA.

Type stratum: Lower Ripley Formation, lower Globotruncana aegyptiaca Interval Zone, upper Campanian.

....

Remarks: 
A confluent thyroid fenestra has been suggested as a derived characteristic of crown cheloniids based on the subdivided thyroid fenestra of many early cryptodires and the absence of such a division in fossil chelonioids like Toxochelys latiremis and Lophochelys spp. Zangerl 1953 [2] ([49]). However, the presence of a divided thyroid fenestra in Peritresius spp., A. hofmanni, and certain extant cheloniids such as Caretta caretta may indicate this feature was lost early in pan-chelonioid evolution and later reacquired in select lineages of pan-cheloniids. It is also possible that Late Cretaceous sea turtles, such as Toxochelys and Peritresius, represent distinct radiations of marine adapted turtle potentially due to multiple invasions of marine environments by Testudines during the latter half of the Cretaceous, with the plesiomorphic condition retained in one lineage (Peritresius) and lost in another (Toxochelys). Testing the latter scenario using only morphology based phylogenetics would require an extensive review of the pelvic elements of fossil and extant Testudines in order to ensure that any character set or coding strategy regarding the arrangement of these elements was sufficiently inclusive to provide meaningful resolution between members of clades containing highly convergent lineages (i.e. marine turtles). Such a review is beyond the scope of the present study but is certainly an area of chelonioid evolution in need of further examination.

Peritresius ornatus Leidy, 1856 
Chelone ornata Leidy [1856]: 105, pl. 18, fig 10.
Peribresius [sic, errore] ornatus. Cope in Cook [1869]: 735.
Peritresius ornatus Cope [1869]: 88; 1870: 150.
Prochonias nodosus Cope [1870]: 158, 159.
Taphrosphys nodosus Cope [1870]: 167, 244, pl. 1, fig 16.
Peritresius ornatus = ? Taphrosphys nodosus Hay [1908]: 122, 210.
Peritresias [sic] ornatus Miller [1955]: 908.
Peritresius ornatus Baird [1964]

Fig 9. Time-calibrated, strict consensus phylogeny of select fossil and extant Testudine species.

Conclusions: 
A new species of Cretaceous marine turtle from the southeastern United States (Peritresius martini sp. nov.) is herein described based on material collected from the upper Campanian of Alabama, USA. Peritresius martini sp. nov. differs from Peritresius ornatus in having a ‘rib-free’ 10th peripheral, a less pronounced lateral keel on the anterior peripherals, and an unsculptured carapace and plastron. The heavily vascularized and sculptured dermal elements characteristic of P. ornatus are interpreted here as potentially indicative of a thermoregulatory capability and may have been one of the key factors contributing to the survival of Peritresius into the Maastrichtian, a period of cooling when other lineages of Campanian marine turtles (e.g., Protostegids, Toxochelys, and Ctenochelys) went extinct.


Andrew D. Gentry , James F. Parham, Dana J. Ehret and Jun A. Ebersole. 2018. A New Species of Peritresius Leidy, 1856 (Testudines: Pan-Cheloniidae) from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Alabama, USA, and the Occurrence of the Genus within the Mississippi Embayment of North America.  PLoS ONE. 13(4): e0195651.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195651